Kubernetes Dashboard 可视化插件部署 博主亲自实践可用

简单的说,K8S Dashboard是官方的一个基于WEB的用户界面,专门用来管理K8S集群,并可展示集群的状态。K8S集群安装好后默认没有包含Dashboard,我们需要额外创建它。

Dashboard的搭建过程中,会遇到一些坑。现在开始,咱们一步一步踩来,走你!

使用Yaml创建相关Pod

还是那句话,官方文档是最重要的参考资料:https://kubernetes.io/docs/tasks/access-application-cluster/web-ui-dashboard/

kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/v2.0.0/aio/deploy/recommended.yaml

这个https://raw.githubusercontent.com/网站被墙了,安装失败了

删除刚刚安装的

kubectl delete -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/kubernetes/dashboard/v2.0.0/aio/deploy/recommended.yaml
  • 我这里直接去github上找到这个yaml并把它下载到本地修改

内容如下:

# Copyright 2017 The Kubernetes Authors.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  type: NodePort # 改成NodePort
  ports:
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
      nodePort: 30001 # 指定nodePort端口
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-csrf
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque
data:
  csrf: ""

---

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
type: Opaque

---

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-settings
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---

kind: Role
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
rules:
  # Allow Dashboard to get, update and delete Dashboard exclusive secrets.
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["secrets"]
    resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder", "kubernetes-dashboard-certs", "kubernetes-dashboard-csrf"]
    verbs: ["get", "update", "delete"]
    # Allow Dashboard to get and update 'kubernetes-dashboard-settings' config map.
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["configmaps"]
    resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-settings"]
    verbs: ["get", "update"]
    # Allow Dashboard to get metrics.
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["services"]
    resourceNames: ["heapster", "dashboard-metrics-scraper"]
    verbs: ["proxy"]
  - apiGroups: [""]
    resources: ["services/proxy"]
    resourceNames: ["heapster", "http:heapster:", "https:heapster:", "dashboard-metrics-scraper", "http:dashboard-metrics-scraper"]
    verbs: ["get"]

---

kind: ClusterRole
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
rules:
  # Allow Metrics Scraper to get metrics from the Metrics server
  - apiGroups: ["metrics.k8s.io"]
    resources: ["pods", "nodes"]
    verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]

---

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: Role
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: kubernetes-dashboard
    namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
subjects:
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: kubernetes-dashboard
    namespace: kubernetes-dashboard

---

kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  replicas: 1
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: kubernetes-dashboard
          image: kubernetesui/dashboard:v2.0.0
          imagePullPolicy: Always
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8443
              protocol: TCP
          args:
            - --auto-generate-certificates
            - --namespace=kubernetes-dashboard
            # Uncomment the following line to manually specify Kubernetes API server Host
            # If not specified, Dashboard will attempt to auto discover the API server and connect
            # to it. Uncomment only if the default does not work.
            # - --apiserver-host=http://my-address:port
          volumeMounts:
            - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
              mountPath: /certs
              # Create on-disk volume to store exec logs
            - mountPath: /tmp
              name: tmp-volume
          livenessProbe:
            httpGet:
              scheme: HTTPS
              path: /
              port: 8443
            initialDelaySeconds: 30
            timeoutSeconds: 30
          securityContext:
            allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
            readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
            runAsUser: 1001
            runAsGroup: 2001
      volumes:
        - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
          secret:
            secretName: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
        - name: tmp-volume
          emptyDir: {}
      serviceAccountName: kubernetes-dashboard
      nodeSelector:
        "kubernetes.io/os": linux
      # Comment the following tolerations if Dashboard must not be deployed on master
      tolerations:
        - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
          effect: NoSchedule

---

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  ports:
    - port: 8000
      targetPort: 8000
  selector:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper

---

kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  namespace: kubernetes-dashboard
spec:
  replicas: 1
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: dashboard-metrics-scraper
      annotations:
        seccomp.security.alpha.kubernetes.io/pod: 'runtime/default'
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: dashboard-metrics-scraper
          image: kubernetesui/metrics-scraper:v1.0.4
          ports:
            - containerPort: 8000
              protocol: TCP
          livenessProbe:
            httpGet:
              scheme: HTTP
              path: /
              port: 8000
            initialDelaySeconds: 30
            timeoutSeconds: 30
          volumeMounts:
            - mountPath: /tmp
              name: tmp-volume
          securityContext:
            allowPrivilegeEscalation: false
            readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
            runAsUser: 1001
            runAsGroup: 2001
      serviceAccountName: kubernetes-dashboard
      nodeSelector:
        "kubernetes.io/os": linux
      # Comment the following tolerations if Dashboard must not be deployed on master
      tolerations:
        - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
          effect: NoSchedule
      volumes:
        - name: tmp-volume
          emptyDir: {}
  • 可用看到上面的yaml文件,在deploment里面定义的container 需要两个国外的镜像 我们还是老套路,提前搞下来
kubernetesui/dashboard:v2.0.0
kubernetesui/metrics-scraper:v1.0.4

docker pull registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/dashboard:v2.0.0
docker pull registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/metrics-scraper:v1.0.4

docker tag registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/dashboard:v2.0.0 kubernetesui/dashboard:v2.0.0
docker tag registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/metrics-scraper:v1.0.4 kubernetesui/metrics-scraper:v1.0.4

kubectl apply -f k8s-dashboard.yaml
  • 查看容器是否正常
kubectl get pods --all-namespaces

浏览器访问 Dashboard

创建好容器后,我们知道 k8s 要想外面访问到需要建立 Service, 一般访问方式有 NodePort , ClusterIP等,上面的 Yaml 文件已经写了,大家复制粘贴就行,回头弄好了再研究

# 查看暴露端口
kubectl get services --all-namespaces

需要注意的是,若提示“连接不安全”的警告时,点击“高级”,点击“添加例外”后即可

随便以集群一个ip +serviceNodePort就可以进行访问了,这里会有点问题,dashboard 默认是https访问, 浏览器访问要用https,并且没有证书肯定访问不了,我们要点击高级,接受风险,我这里是firefox 其他浏览器自测

还有一个解决方案就是使用proxy
master上执行: kubectl proxy --address=0.0.0.0 --disable-filter=true

  • address表示外界可以使用192.168.56.101来访问Dashboard,我们也可以使用0.0.0.0
  • disable-filter=true表示禁用请求过滤功能,否则我们的请求会被拒绝,并提示 Forbidden (403) Unauthorized。

我这里直接master ip + nodePort端口 https://192.168.28.131:30001

记住是https,它是转发到443端口的

接受继续

  • 访问成功

利用Token登录 Dashboard

  • 查看dashboard-admin token
kubectl -n kube-system describe secret $(kubectl -n kube-system get secret | grep kubernetes-dashboard-admin-token | awk '{print $1}')

复制这个Token 到登录界面登录

  • 可用看到我们熟悉的界面 登录成功

好啦,大家可以利用这个来观察K8s的运行情况

您的支持是对我最大的鼓励!

发表于: 作者:憧憬。
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